Thursday, 2 February 2012

RUKHSHAH (meaning) and distribution


By
Ustad Nurul Mukhlisin Asyrafuddin


Rukhshah a language, it means that permits the reduction or relief. Meanwhile, according to scholars of usul is defined by:

الحكم الثابت على خلاف الدليل لعذر

Applicable law based on the proposition that violates the theorem that there is because of udzur.

From the definition above three conditions of rukhshah understood as follows:

1. Rukhshah (relief) should be based on the argument of the Qur'an and Sunnah both textual and contextual through qiyas (analogy) or ijtihad, not by his own will and suspicion.

2. Said the law includes all laws and existing legal arguments such as obligatory, sunnah, forbidden and permissible rukhshah everything can happen in it.

3. The existence udzur either difficulty or objection in doing so.
HIKMAH IS RUKHSHAH.
The existence rukhshah (waivers) are part of love Allah to His slaves and evidence of that Islam is a religion of simple and not burdensome as his word:

{يريد الله بكم اليسر ولا يريد بكم العسر}

Allah wish for your convenience and does not want hardship for you. [Al-Baqarah (2:185.)]

Also the word of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala.

{يريد الله أن يخفف عنكم وخلق الإنسان ضعيفا}

God wanted to give relief to you, and man made weak. [An Nisa '(4:28).]

Narrated by Abu Hurayrah, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

{إن الدين يسر ولن يشاد الدين أحد إلا غلبه}

Surely religion is easy and no one is superfluous in this religion will defeat him unless (not able to do it) ". [HR. Bukhari]
DISTRIBUTION RUKHSHAH.
In terms of shape rukhshah divided into seven types, namely:

1. Rukhshah to abort such obligations may abandon mandatory or sunnah act because heavy exercise or harm himself if these acts, such as sick leave or in a quick trip must of Ramadhon, as God say: "If anyone among you sick or traveling (and then he broke), then (wajiblah him fast) as day that left it on other days. " [Al-Baqarah / 2:184].

Rukhshah also given to women to leave the prayer when menstruation or childbirth, not to fast while pregnant or breastfeeding. Ibn Abbas radi 'anhu said: Given rukhshah to parents home to not fasting and replace it by feeding the poor every day and not mandatory qadha (repeat) his fast, as well as to pregnant and lactating women if he was afraid of him then it should not fast and provide a poor meal every day for not fasting. Ibn Abbas also said: When pregnant women worry over their own health or nursing mothers who worry over their children so they can both break (not fast) and fed every day that a poor and not mengqadha 'fasting [1].

In the same book states history of Albany Nashiruddin Sheikh Nafi 'that Abdullah ibn Umar's daughter' anhu was married to one of Qurays. She is pregnant and experiencing thirst of Ramadan fasting. Abdullah ibn Umar ordered to break and told him to feed a poor man.
Another such example rukhshah bolehnya leaving Friday prayers due to aging or ill travelers, but replace it with the noon prayer. Tariq ibn Shihab from the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

الجمعة حق واجب على كل مسلم في جماعة إلا أربعة عبد مملوك أو امرأة أو صبي أو مريض

Friday prayer is obligatory for every Muslim with the congregation except for four people: the slave, women, children and the sick. [HR.Abu David, Bayhaqi-Saheeh].

From Abdullah ibn Umar radi 'anhu, the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam said:

ليس على المسافر جمعة

Friday prayers are not obligatory for the pilgrim people "[2]

Rukhshah Friday prayers are not also given to people who were guarding something very vital. One who served in the central part imformasi responsible for the safety and needs a lot of people have asked the Standing Committee Daa'imah in Saudi Arabia if he could not join Friday prayers or prayers?. Daa'imah Standing Committee replied as follows: Legal origin perform Friday prayers for every Muslim who understands and Muqim is mandatory, based on the word of Allaah: "O ye who believe, if called upon to pray on Fri day ' at, then bersegerahlah ye in remembrance of Allah and leave your trading. That is better for you if ye only knew. "[Al-Gomaa / 62:9]

And the hadith narrated by Imam Ahmad and Muslim from Ibn Mas'ud radi anhu that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said to the people who do not perform the Friday prayers:

لقد هممت أن آمر رجلا يصلي بالناس ثم أحرق على رجال يتخلفون عن الجمعة بيوتهم

Actually I wanted to get someone to cover for me to become a priest praying with people, then I would burn the houses of people who left Friday prayers. "

Narrated by Muslim from Abu Hurayrah and Ibn Umar heard the Messenger of both sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said in the pulpit:

لينتهين أقوام عن ودعهم الجمعات أو ليختمن الله على قلوبهم ثم ليكونن من الغافلين

Clans should be stopped leaving Friday prayers or Allah will actually lock their hearts then they are truly one of those people who are careless.

And scholars are agreed that if teradapat udzur syar'i for people who are obliged to Friday, such as directly responsible for security-related jobs and maintain the welfare of those people who are required to remain to be implemented at the time of Friday prayers as well as traffic officer or officers The central security and the like, then they should leave the Friday prayers and the congregation based on the generality of the word of God "So fear ye God according kesanggupanmu." [at-Thaghabun/64: 16]

And the words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam.

ما نهيتكم عنه فاجتنبوه وما أمرتكم به فافعلوا منه ما استطعتم

What I forbid you to do it then leave, and what did I tell you then do appropriate abilities. "

It's just that it does not abort obligation dhuhur prayer and should do so in time. [3]

2. Rukhshah in the form of reduced levels of obligations, such as reducing the number of prayers prayers qashar four at a time or reduce the time to pray jama 'for travelers, Subahnahu Allah wa Ta'ala, says: "And when you travel through the earth, then why do not you shorten prayers [an-Nisa / 4:101].

Rukhshah menjama 'prayers are also given because there is an urgent excuse as mentioned by Ibn Abbas radi' anhu, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam never menjamak Noon and Asr prayers in Medina, not because of fear or a wayfarer. Talk that Abu Zubair: I asked the Messenger of Allaah Said why 'alaihi wa sallam to do so?. Said replied: I once asked Ibn 'Abbas as you ask and he answered: "The Messenger sallallaahu' alayhi wa sallam did not want to incriminate his people". Imam Nawawi in his book Sharh Muslim, V/215, in commenting on this hadith says: "The majority of scholars allow menjamak pray for those who are not travelers when there is an urgent need, the record does not make such a tradition (custom)". The opinion thus also stated by Ibn Sirin, Asyhab, also Almarwazi Ishaq and Ibn Munzir, based on the words of Ibn Abbas when listening to the Prophet's hadith above, "He did not want to burden his people, so he does not explain the reason menjamak prayer, whether because of illness or the traveler". [4 ]

3. Rukhshah in the form of replacing the obligations with other obligations such as replacing a lighter wudu 'and showered with tayamum because there is no water or can not or should not use water because of illness and others, replacing the worshipers stand to sit, lie down or cues, replace the obligatory fast with provide food to needy people for parents who can not fast or ill people who do not have recovery expectations.

4. Rukhshah in the form of suspension of execution obligations such as the suspension of midday to pray 'Asr prayer when the jama' ta'khir or suspend the implementation of the fasting month of Ramadan out for people who are sick or traveler.

5. Rukhshah prefer exercising in the form of obligations such as paying zakat nature are a few days before the feast when the necessity is at the end of Ramadan, as reported by Nafi 'that Abdullah ibn Umar radi' anhu issued a charity day or two before the feast [HR.Bukhari].

Or like putting the implementation of the 'Asr prayer at midday when the jama' taqdim.

6. Rukhshah obligations in the form of change such as changing the way melaksasnakan pray when sick or in a state of war, Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala says:

وإذا كنت فيهم فأقمت لهم الصلاة فلتقم طآئفة منهم معك وليأخذوا أسلحتهم فإذا سجدوا فليكونوا من ورآئكم ولتأت طآئفة أخرى لم يصلوا فليصلوا معك وليأخذوا حذرهم وأسلحتهم

And if you're in the midst of them (your friend) then you want to establish their prayers together, then let a party of them stand up (prayer) with thee and bear arms, then when they (the prayers be with you) prostration (has perfected seraka ' at), then let them move from the rear (to face the enemy), and be came a second group that has not bersalat, then bersalatlah them with you, and let them be on the alert and holding guns ... .. [An-Nisa / 4: 102].

7. Rukhshah in the form of allowing the unlawful acts and deeds that must leave because of senility syar'i like bolehnya eat eat carrion, blood, and pork was originally forbidden, Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala says.

إنما حرم عليكم الميتة والدم ولحم الخنزير ومآأهل به لغير الله فمن اضطر غير باغ ولا عاد فلا إثم عليه إن الله غفور رحيم

He hath only forbidden you carrion, blood, pork, and animals (which when slaughtered) is called (name) except Allah. But whoever in a state of forced (to eat) was he did not want it and not (also) to exceed the limits, then there is no blame on him. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. [Al-Baqarah / 4: 173].

Buying and selling greeting by giving price (payment) in advance and the goods owing to the conditions specified amount, nature and place of acceptance also includes rukhshah, such as the price a farmer receives money gabahnya yet he harvests because she needed the money, this never happened at the time of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, as narrated by Ibn Abbas radi' anhu.

قدم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم المدينة وهم يسلفون في الثمار السنة والسنتين فقال من أسلف في تمر فليسلف في كيل معلوم ووزن معلوم إلى أجل معلوم

Prophet arrived in Medina and they were buying and selling fruit greets a year or two years, he said, "Whoever is buying and selling fruit greets the dose should do so with a clear, obvious and time scales are clearly" . [Bukhari and Muslim].

Though the legal origin in the sale and purchase is al-taqabudh the handover of goods and the price and there should not be delayed.

There is also rukhshah given because of senility ketererpaksaan example bolehnya words mengkafirkan on condition that his heart still remained faithful, Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala says: "Whoever disbelieved in Allah after his faith (he got the wrath of God), but who but their heart is forced to remain calm infidel in faith (he does not sin), but the people who paved the breasts to disbelief, then the wrath of God fell on him and for him a great punishment ". [an-Nahl/16: 106].

USING THE LAW RUKHSHAH.
Are people getting rukhshah as excuse as above shall conduct or legal rukhsa ibahah (may mengamalnya or leave it)?. This issue is a debate among scholars. Imam Abu Ishaq al-Syathibi in his book al-Muwafaaqat rukhsa mention legal uses are permissible, ie permissible or not. The reason is because it's basically just rukhshah waivers in order not to complicate and burden, then one must choose between practicing rukhshah or not depends on aging difficulties or objections that he faces, such as a person he was awarded a leisure traveler to choose whether he wants to shorten his prayers or itmam (perfects four cycles) depends on uzurnya. If using rukhshah was ordered either mandatory or sunnah then it is no longer a relief, but the obligations that must be done and there should be no other choice.

The opinions and arguments of al-Syatibi above Jumhur disputed by scholars who say that using rukhsa is a must and return to the origin of law whether he shall or circumcision, such as keeping the soul in order not to perish is mandatory, then eat the pig for those who are forced to not starve to death is mandatory rather than permissible. Because permissible to say then that person may choose between eating or not eating even allowed himself to starve himself to death.

In the case of shorten and menjama 'prayer for the traveler, Sheikh Abd al-Khulaify Adzim said mandatory for those travelers to do so. This means someone must do qashar prayers traveler on his way even if he does not get into trouble or not performing prayers perfectly serious. He gives several arguments including:
Hadith narrated by Ibn Abbas, he said:

فرض الله الصلاة على لسان نبيكم صلى الله عليه وسلم في الحضر أربعا وفي السفر ركعتين وفي الخوف ركعة

God require prayer through your prophet spoken when Muqim four rak'ahs, when in the course of two cycles, and when in a state of fear one rak "[Reported by Muslim].

From Abdullah ibn Umar radi 'anhu said:

صلاة السفر ركعتان وصلاة الجمعة ركعتان والفطر والأضحى ركعتان تمام غير قصر على لسان محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم

Prayer in the course of two cycles, the Friday prayer of two rak'ahs, prayed Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha two cycles, not completely reduced under the command of Allah. [HR. Ibn Majah and Nasa'i].

Aisha radi 'anha said:

أن الصلاة أول ما فرضت ركعتين فأقرت صلاة السفر وأتمت صلاة الحضر

The first time difardhukan pray two rak'ahs, then set so the traveler and mengenapkan prayers (four rak'ahs) when no traveler. [HR.Bukhari and Muslim].

Lajnah Da'imah (Majlis Ulama) in Saudi Arabia when asked whether a more Afdhal for people who are travelers to fast or not?, Replied: Many saheeh hadeeth that the Prophet himself and deeds that show that the breaking (not fast) is better for people who travelers, both in a state of severe or not. Nevertheless they may berpusa as narrated by Imam Muslim from Hamza ibn 'Umar al-Aslamy said: O Messenger of us there is a strong carry out fast when the travelers whether they are wrong (when fasting)? He replied: It is rukhshah of God those who take it then it is better, anyone who wants to fast then there is no blame on him. [Reported by Muslim].

Allaah 'knows best opinion of the majority scholars stating the need to practice rukhshah is either mandatory or sunnah is a rajih (strong) by reason of:

a). In accordance with the characteristics of Islam that is easy and not burdensome.

b). Rukhshah is Sadaqah Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala commanded by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam to accept it, as narrated by the son of the Umayyad Ya'la he asked Umar ibn Khattab about the word of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala: And if you are traveling in face of the earth, then why do not you menqasar prayer (mu), if you fear attack infidels. Surely those who disbelieve enemy to you. (An-Nisa / 4:101). And now we're safe. (No need qashar). Umar bin Khattab said:

عجب مما عجبت منه, فسألت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن ذلك. فقال: صدقة تصدق الله بها عليكم, فاقبلوا صدقته.

I was also surprised as you are surprised and I asked the Messenger of the problem and says, "Sadaqah is given by God to you and accept his Sadaqah".

c). Because it is a Sadaqah from him, then Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala pleased that his Sadaqah practiced by his servant, as narrated by Ibn Umar that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

إن الله يحب أن تؤتى رخصه كما يحب أن تترك معصيته.

Verily, Allah is a pleasure to take his relief as he pleased at the immoral left him. [HR.Ibnu Hibban and Ibn Huzaimah].

d). Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam himself as our example and adopt something always take the easiest, as narrated by Aisha radi' anha he said: "The Messenger (never choose between two matters except to take the easiest as long as it is not sinful, if it's a sin then he is one of the most away from the problem and the Messenger (not because of personal vengeance unless it violates the Shari'a of Allah then he is back because God [HR.Bukhari and Muslim].

Allaah 'knows best.

[Transcribed from the magazine edition of As-Sunnah Foundation Published 01/Tahun VIII/1425H/2004M Lajnah Istiqomah Surakarta, Jl. Solo - Purwodadi Km. 8 Selokaton Gondangrejo Solo 57 183 Tel. 08121533647, 08157579296]
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Footnote
[1]. Shaikh Albaani mentions in the book Irwa 'juz 4 page 19 of al-Thabary and he said; sanadnya Saheeh Muslim in accordance with the requirements
[2]. HR.Daraquthni and classed as saheeh by Shaykh Abd al-Khalfi Adzim in the book of al-Wajiz things. 142.
[3]. Lil Fatawa Muwazhzhafin Daaimah committee, al-Mufhrafy tartib Dakhilullah
[4]. See Al Wajiz Fi Fiqh As Sunnah Wal Book of Al-Aziz bin Abdullah

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