Monday, 30 January 2012

Nasikh and Mansukh

By
Ustadz Muslim Al-Atsari


Naskh literally means: the removal; abolished; move; writing. As a term, then there are 2 kinds:

First. Naskh in line with the students of usul fiqh term Muta-akhirin. they need totally different ta'rif.

Al-Baidhowi rahimahullah (d. 685 H) outlined by: "naskh is that the rationalization of the cessation of sharia law by syar'i who return after". [1]

Ibn Qudama rahimahullah (d. 620 AH) mentions naskh definition by stating: "Eliminating the present law with the words (arguments) are 1st, with words that return after". [2]

Among ta'rif compact and canopy are the words of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-'Utsaimin, namely: "abolish the law or lafazhnya syar'i arguments with arguments of the Book and therefore the Sunnah". [3]

Second: in line with the term naskh Salafush Mutaqoddimin Salih. The term naskh their existing broader than the definition of the students of usul Mutaakhirin.

Hudhayfah radi 'anhu said: "That gave fatwas to folks is simply 3 people: those that grasp the mansukh of the Koran; or amir (leader) to be (berfatwa); or stupid one who forced himself". [4]

Imam Ibn al-Qayyim rahimahullah said commenting on the words above: "What is supposed by him (Hudhayfah) and that is meant by the bulk of the Salaf (the term) and mansukh naasikh typically is: abolish the law in addition, and this can be the term-akhirin Muta, and typically are: delete the appointment of the proposition 'am, [5] mutlaq, [6] Zahir, [7] and others, probably with takhshish (specialism), taqyiid (determination), or bring a muthlaq to muqayyad (specified), and interpretation (explanation) and tanbiih (reminding). in order that they (the Salaf) named istitsna '(exception), syarath, and properties with naskh, as a result of it had been deleting the appointment of Zahir and make a case for meant. So naskh, in line with them (the Salaf) and their language is: to elucidate what's meant by not lafazh it, however the items that are outside. Anyone listen to their word, would see him from that what cannot be calculated, and with it'll be lost as a result of it caused difficulties for bringing their words to the top of the new term ". [8]

Nasikh meaning: that blotted out, that's the argument the Book or the Sunnah that abolish the law or lafazhnya syar'i proposition. In essence naasikh (which abolished) is God Almighty.

Mansukh means: being exhausted, the legal proposition that lafazhnya syar'i or eliminated.

Appointment of naskh IS IN Shari'at
Please note that the presence of naskh within the Shari'ah or the verses of the Qur'an that mansukh (removed legal / lafazhnya) by another verse is shown by the argument naql (verse / hadith), the argument cheap, and ijma '.

Theorem Naql
The Word of God Almighty.

ما ننسخ من ءاية

What are the verses that we have a tendency to nasakhkan (unselect) ... [Al-Baqarah: 106]

The that means of the word "paragraph" within the word of God is that the verse of the Qur'an, as Salih Salafush interpretation that we all know of. just like the history of Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, the chums of Ibn Mas'ud, Abul 'Aliyah, Muhammad ibn Ka'b al-Qurodhi, Adh-Dhahhak,' Atho ', As-Suddi, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Jarir, and Ibn Kathir [See Taffsir Ibn Kathir, al-Baqarah: 106]

Manafsirkan The word "paragraph" within the word of God on the "miracle", as within the Quran Tafsir Al-Furqan, the work of Hassan A. rahimahullah, then we have a tendency to worry it's a heretical interpretation. though the language is justified, however contrary to the consensus professional interpretation as on top of. Wallohu is aware of best.

The Word of God Almighty.

وإذا بدلنآ ءاية مكان ءاية

And after we modification a verse in place of another verse. [An Nahl: 101]

Likewise, this verse additionally clearly shows the existence of Quranic verses and mansukh Nasikh, not simply Nasikh it! Verse that Allah created the replacement is naasikh, verse is verse mansukh yangdigantikan. And this can be terribly clear, as we've got seen. the bulk of those examples are reported mansukh paragraph below insha Allah. additional broadly may be seen within the books of fiqh usul.

Common arguments.
Sheikh Muhammad bin Salih Al-'Utsaimin rahimahullah said: "naskh could occur by reason and therefore the real place in line with shari'ah. The bolehnya occur in line with sense, as a result of all things within the hands of God, any law (decision) his, as a result of he's Ar-Rabb (the Lord) Al-Maalik (the Owner). He then has the proper mensyari'atkan for his servants what's needed by the lesson and blessing. will build sense if the owner refuses to order what He had with what He wills? Then the content of God's knowledge and mercy towards His servants is He mensyari'atkan to them what God is aware of that there are mashlahat-mashlahat her faith and their world. whereas mashlahat-mashlahat varies in line with the circumstances and times. typically a law is additional mashlahat for the servants at only once or one state. And typically different law at the time and different circumstances additional mashlahat. And Allah is Knower, Wise ". [Usul Fiqh, p.: 45, by Sheikh Muhammad bin Salih Al-'Utsaimin]

Theorem Ijma '.
Many students have claimed there was consensus concerning the existence of naskh within the Qur'an and Sunnah.

Al-Baji rahimahullah said: "All Muslims believe bolehnya / impossibility naskh Shari'ah in line with reason and temperament '". [9]

Al-Kamal Ibn Humam rahimahullah said: "Followers of shari'ah-shari'ah has been prescribed bolehnya (naskh, a sense) and incidence (the shari'ah)". [10]

Shaykh Muhammad Al-Amin Al-Syinqithi rahimahullah said: "Know that the 3 styles of this (ie naskh of the Qur'an by the Qur'an; naskh Sunnah by Sunnah Mutawatir Mutawatir; and Sunnah naskh Sunday by Sunday) there's no dispute to him among students who believed, as several students have menukilkan of ijma 'to him. thus penyelisihan folks menyelisihi not counted during this case and there's no proof for it ". [P.: 148]

Dr. Ali said: "They (the scholars) said: Verily the Companions of Allaah 'and the remainder of the Salaf have anhum ijma' (agreed) that the Shari'ah of Muhammad sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam take away all shari'ah is past. As they even have ijma 'that naskh is going on to several of the laws of Islamic Shari'a. And it happened simply because the proposition to ascertain bolehnya / impossibility (naskh in line with the sense-ed) ". [Al-Ushuliyyah Araul Mu'tazilah, p.: 425, Dr Sheikh. Sa'id bin Ali bin Salih Adh-Dhuweihi]

Tsanaulloh Shaykh Az-Zahidi said: "Experts fiqh and usul have agreed on the permissibility / chance of naskh in line with reason, and upon the incidence in line with temperament '. Except what dinukilkan of Muslim Abu Muhammad ibn Bahr al-Ashfahani a Mu'tazilite who died in 322 H ". [11]

Kinds of naskh
First: varied varieties of naskh, viewed from the mansukh nash (deleted) there are 3 parts: [12]

1. Nash The mansukh The statute, but Lafazhnya keep.
This is the sort most generally mansukh nash. That law abolished syar'i, not practiced, however lafazhnya mounted.

Wisdom is naskh type: permanent reward to browse that paragraph and to remind folks concerning the knowledge of naskh, particularly within the law that lightened and facilitated.

For example the word of God Almighty.

يآأيها النبي حرض المؤمنين على القتال إن يكن منكم عشرون صابرون يغلبوا مائتين وإن يكن منكم مائة يغلبوا ألفا من الذين كفروا بأنهم قوم لا يفقهون

O Prophet, kobarkanlah spirit of the trustworthy to fight. If there are twenty steadfast among you they shall overcome 2 hundred enemies. And if there are 100 folks (the patient) among you, then they'll defeat than a thousand unbelievers, as a result of unbelievers were folks that didn't perceive. [Al-Anfal: 65]

This verse indicates the duty bersabarnya twenty two hundred Muslims in a very battle against the infidels. And bersabarnya a hundred Muslims in one thousand in a very battle against the infidels.

Then the law is subsequently removed by the word of God.

الئان خفف الله عنكم وعلم أن فيكم ضعفا فإن يكن منكم مائة صابرة يغلبوا مائتين وإن يكن منكم ألف يغلبوا ألفين بإذن الله والله مع الصابرين

Now God has relieved you and He needs to grasp you that there are drawbacks. thus if there's among you 100 steadfast, they shall overcome 2 hundred, and if among you there are a thousand folks (the patient), they shall overcome 2 thousand folks. And Allah is with those that steadfastly persevere. [Al-Anfal: 66]

Abdullah ibn Abbas said:

لما نزلت (إن يكن منكم عشرون صابرون يغلبوا مائتين) شق ذلك على المسلمين حين فرض عليهم أن لا يفر واحد من عشرة فجاء التخفيف فقال (الآن خفف الله عنكم وعلم أن فيكم ضعفا فإن يكن منكم مائة صابرة يغلبوا مائتين) قال فلما خفف الله عنهم من العدة نقص من الصبر بقدر ما خفف عنهم

When it comes down (the word of God): "If there are twenty steadfast among you they shall overcome 2 hundred, the enemy" (Al-Anfal: 65), it's exhausting for Muslims, when prescribed for them, that one person mustn't be running face ten (the enemy). Then came relief, Allah says: "Now God has relieved you and He needs to grasp you that there are drawbacks. thus if there's among you 100 steadfast, they shall overcome 2 hundred. "(Al-Anfal: 66) When God has relieved of their range (the enemy that has got to be faced-red), kesabaranpun reduced the scale of what God has lightened from them ". [HR. Bukhari, no: 4653]

Here's an example mansukh law within the Qur'an. rationalization mansukhnya law in verse sixty five of Surat al-Anfal on top of, except for Ibn Abbas, additionally narrated from Mujahid, Atho ',' Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Zayd bin Aslam, 'Al-Khurosani Atho, Adh-Dhohhak, and others. [13] those that reject the existence of mansukh within the Qur'an has menyelisihi their interpretation.

2. Nash The mansukh Lafazhnya, however Still statute.
Al-Aamidi rahimahullah stated that the students prescribed the incidence of naskh (deletions) text / lafazh, while not legal naskh, in distinction to the belief that cluster alone among Mu'tazilite. [14]

Wisdom naskh sort is: so as docility to God's folks show, that is, in haste to obedience from sources that zhanni rojih (strong conjecture), that is a component of the Sunnah, not from a supply entirely yaqin, specifically Al-Qur ' an. As Prophet Ibrahim Alaihissallam can hasten to hold out the slaughter of his son, Prophet Isma'il, the supply of dreams, whereas the dream is that the lowest level of the trail of revelation to the prophets. And Allaah is aware of best. [15]

In addition, among the silver lining is what was said by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-'Utsaimin rahimahullah. He said: "Wisdom naskh lafazh while not (naskh) law is to check the folks against the observe that they're not found within the Qur'an, and manifest their religion by what Allah revealed. in contrast to the Jews who tried to hide up rajm texts within the Torah ". [16]

Examples of this kind of naskh is rajm paragraph [17] Umar bin Al-Khathab said:

لقد خشيت أن يطول بالناس زمان حتى يقول قائل لا نجد الرجم في كتاب الله فيضلوا بترك فريضة أنزلها الله ألا وإن الرجم حق على من زنى وقد أحصن إذا قامت البينة أو كان الحبل أو الاعتراف قال سفيان كذا حفظت ألا وقد رجم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ورجمنا بعده

I fear, are a protracted day on humans in order that somebody can say: "We didn't notice rajm within the book of God", in order that they have gone astray by leaving an obligation as a result of that has been revealed by God. Remember, real rajm is haq upon those that committed adultery and he or she had been married, if the proof had been upright, or no pregnancy, or there's a confession. " Sufyan said: "Demikianalh that I remember". "Remember, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam has done rajm, and that we have done rajm when him". [HR. Bukhari, no: 6829; Muslim, no: 1691; and others]

The verse lafazh rajm, mentioned by a number of history with the sound:

الشيخ والشيخة إذا زنيا فارجموهما البتة نكالا من الله و الله عزيز حكيم

Men who are older (mean: who are married) and older ladies (mean: who are married) if committed adultery, then rajamlah each earnest, because the sentence that contains a lesson from Allah, and Allah is Mighty, Wise. [See Fathul Bari, 12/169, Darul Hadith, Cairo, cet: 1, th: 1419 H / 1998 AD, Sharh Hadith no: 6829]

3. The statute mansukh Nash And Lafazhnya.
Example: The paragraph that states ten times breastfeeding forbids wedding. Aisha said:

كان فيما أنزل من القرآن عشر رضعات معلومات يحرمن ثم نسخن بخمس معلومات فتوفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهن فيما يقرأ من القرآن

Long ago in what has been revealed between the Qur'an is: "Ten times a known feeding, proscribe", then it dinaskh (eliminated) with: "Five times feeding the unknown". Then the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam died which includes the reading of the Qur'an. [HR. Muslim, no: 1452]

The that means of the word 'Aisha "and that features being browse in between the Al-Quran" is:
• That is: browse the law, however lafazhnya not.
• Or: folks that haven't accomplished naskh reading, still reading it. [18]

Second: varied varieties of texts that naskh seen naasikh (remove)-briefly-there are four sections:

1. Al-Qur'an Al-Quran With Dimansukh.
This type of naskh is prescribed by the scholars', as for folks that suppose mansukh no verse within the Qur'an, the words don't seem to be thought-about. [19]

An example is verse sixty five, that mansukh by verse sixty six of Surat al-Anfal, as we've got stated on top of. Another example: the word of Allah Almighty.

ياأيها الذين ءامنوا إذا ناجيتم الرسول فقدموا بين يدي نجواكم صدقة ذلك خير لكم وأطهر فإن لم تجدوا فإن الله غفور رحيم

O ye who believe, if you hold a special conversation with ye Apostle charity (the poor) before talks itu.Yang thus it's higher for you and purer; if you not get (which can wherewithal) then surely Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. [Al Mujadilah: 12]

This verse indicates the duty for those that are ready Sadaqah before whispering to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Then this verse dimansukh next verse that abolished the need. See this in Tafsir Ibn Kathir. Allah Almighty words:

ءأشفقتم أن تقدموا بين يدي نجواكم صدقات فإذ لم تفعلوا وتاب الله عليكم فأقيموا الصلاة وءاتوا الزكاة وأطيعوا الله ورسوله والله خبير بما تعملون

Are you petrified of (the poor) as a result of you offer alms before talks with the Apostle thus if you not memperbuatnya and God has given repentance unto you then establish regular prayers, pay Zakat and obey Allah and His Messenger and Allah is awake to what you are doing . [Al Mujadilah: 13]

2. With Dimansukh Qur'an Sunnah.
In this sort there are 2 parts:

a). Dimansukh Qur'an with the Sunna (hadith) Mutawatir.
In this section, students disagree. it had been narrated from Imam Ahmad rahimahullah that he declared: "The Koran doesn't dinaskh (deleted) except by the Qur'an who return when ...". however Sheikh Muhammad Al-Amin Al-Syinqithi rahimahullah said: "(Under) analysis, and will occur naskh of the Qur'an with the Sunna Mutawatir, for example: the abolition of Paragraph five times feedings with Mutawatir Sunnah, the abolition of Al-khul'a and Al Hafd with Mutawatir-Sunna. and plenty of different examples. " [20]

b). Dimansukh Qur'an with the Sunna (hadith) on Sunday.
In this section, students additionally at odds. Who is aware of best rajih-wallohu these items exist and happen. For example:

The Word of God Almighty.

قل لآ أجد في مآ أوحي إلي محرما على طاعم يطعمه إلا أن يكون ميتة أو دما مسفوحا أو لحم خنزير فإنه رجس أو فسقا أهل لغير الله به

Say: "I don't notice within the revelation that has been revealed to me, things that are forbidden for folks that need to eat it, unless or not it's carrion, or blood poured forth or the flesh of swine - for that verily it's dirty - or animals slaughtered within the name of apart from Allah. [Al-An `am: 145]

This verse indicates that the food is forbidden, when this verse was revealed, solely four varieties on top of. This means, at the time, docile donkey meat is also eaten, pursuant to the current paragraph. Then the permissibility of this law abolished by saheeh ahaadeeth that came later that forbids meat tame donkeys. as a result of the paragraph on top of, together with Al-An `am, that may be a letter Makiyyah, that fell before hijroh, with the agreement students. The prohibition docile donkey meat with Sunnah happened at that time in Khoibar.

عن أنس بن مالك رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم جاءه جاء فقال أكلت الحمر ثم جاءه جاء فقال أكلت الحمر ثم جاءه جاء فقال أفنيت الحمر فأمر مناديا فنادى في الناس إن الله ورسوله ينهيانكم عن لحوم الحمر الأهلية فإنها رجس فأكفئت القدور وإنها لتفور باللحم

From Anas ibn Malik that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam approached by somebody who came, and said: "Donkey-donkey has eaten". Then return to him someone who came, and said: "Donkey-donkey has eaten". Then return to him someone who came, and said: "Donkey-donkey has eaten". Then he ordered a caller, and then he known as among the people: "Verily Allah and His Apostle forbid you from benign donkey meat, he's very dirty / unclean". Then overturned pots, whereas the pots were boiling (contains) meat (tame donkey). [21]

Between the on top of paragraph with the hadith that forbids docile donkey meat isn't contradictory, since the time they're totally different. whereas the on top of paragraph down, docile donkey halal meat, as a result of that's forbidden is barely four styles of food. Then at that time came prohibition docile donkey meat. [Mudzakiroh, p.: 153-155]

3. Dimansukh Sunnah By Al-Quran.
Examples of this kind are: Shari'ah prayers facing Baitul Maqdis, that is predicated on the Sunnah, the abolition of the word of Allah Almighty.

قد نرى تقلب وجهك في السمآء فلنولينك قبلة ترضاها فول وجهك شطر المسجد الحرام وحيث ما كنتم فولوا وجوهكم شطره

It was we have a tendency to (often) to examine your face trying up to heaven, then indeed we have a tendency to shall flip you to a Qiblah that you simply like. Palingkanlah your face towards the Sacred Mosque. And wherever you're, palingkanlah your face towards him. [Al-Baqarah: 144]

4. With Dimansukh Sunnah Sunnah.
Example: The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam.

نهيتكم عن زيارة القبور فزوروها

Once I forbid you from the grave pilgrimage, thus currently allow you to build a beeline (the grave). [HR. Muslim, no: 977]

With the on top of rationalization it's clear that within the Qur'an there Nasikh (verse take away pre-existing law) and mansukh (paragraph deleted) legal or lafazhnya.

Thus, is also helpful

[Copied from magazines Sunnah 03/Tahun VIII/1425H/2004 Edition. revealed Foundation Lajnah Istiqomah Surakarta, Jl. Solo - Solo Purwodadi Km.8 Selokaton Gondanrejo fifty seven 183 Tel. 0271-761016]
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Footnote
[1]. See: Al-Minhaj Syarhil Ibhaaj Bi two / 247; quoted from Al-Ushuliyyah Araul Mu'tazilite, p.: 412-413, Sheikh Dr. Sa'id bin Ali bin Salih Adh-Dhuweihi
[2]. Idem, p.: 413
[3]. Ushulul Fiqh, p.: 45, by Sheikh Muhammad bin Salih Al-'Utsaimin
[4]. [I'lamul Muwaqqi'in one / thirty six, Darul Hadith, Cairo, th: 1422 H / 2002 AD
[5]. 'Am is: lafazh that included all of what's acceptable for him in addition and in line with its form with no restrictions ". See: Taisirul Usul, p.: 95, Shaykh Hafiz Tsanaullah Az-Zahidi, cet: 1, th: 1410 H
[6]. Muthlaq is: lafazh that concerning one in a very position of indefinite nature of the quilt of its kind. See: Taisirul Usul, p.: 90
[7]. Zahir is: lafazh containing 2 or additional meanings, however is additional visible on one in every of them, most likely from the temperament ', or language or' urf (custom). See: Taisirul Usul, p.: 32
[8]. Idem
[9]. Ihkamul Fushul, p.: 391, quoted from 421
[10]. At-Tahrir bi Syarhit Taisir three / 181, quoted from Al-Ushuliyyah Aroul Mu'tazilite, p.: 421, by Shaykh Dr. Sa'id bin Ali bin Salih Adh-Dhuweihi
[11]. Taisirul Usul, p.: 216
[12]. See: Mudzakirah Ushulul Fiqh 'Ala Raudhatun Nazhir, p.: 127, by Sheikh Muhammad Al-Amin Al-Syinqithi, tahqiq: Sami Abu Hafs al-'Arabi, Darul Yaqin,; Ushulul Fiqh, p.: 47-48, by Sheikh Muhammad bin Salih Al-'Utsaimin; Sharh al-Fiqh Ushulil Waraqat FII, p.: 170-173, by Sheikh Abdullah bin Salih Al-Fauzan; Taisirul Usul, p.: 214-216, Sheikh Hafiz Tsanaullah Az-Zahidi, cet: 1, th: 1410 H
[13]. See Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Al-Anfal 65-66
[14]. Al-Ihkaam three / 154, the work of al-Amidi; quoted from Sharh al-Fiqh Ushulil Waraqat FII, p.: 170, works of Sheikh Abdullah bin Salih Al-Fauzan
[15]. See: Sharh al-Fiqh Ushulil Waraqat FII, p.: 171, works of Sheikh Abdullah bin Salih Al-Fauzan
[16]. Usul Fiqh, p.: 48, by Sheikh Muhammad bin Salih Al-'Utsaimin
[17]. That HAD (punishment) for married adulterers by stoning to death
[18]. See: Sharh al-Fiqh Ushulil Waraqat FII, p.: 170, works of Sheikh Abdullah bin Salih Al-Fauzan
[19]. See: Mudzakirah 'Usul Fiqh Ala, p.: 148, by Sheikh Muhammad Al-Amin Syinqithi
[20]. Mudzakiroh Usul Fiqh, p.: 150
[21]. HR. Bukhari, no: 5528; Muslim, no: 1940 (35)

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