Sheikh Abdullah bin Abd al-Azhim Khalafi
Definition of 'Iddah
Al-'Iddah derived from the word al-'adad and al-ihsha (numbers) mean number of days calculated by the wife.
While the term that the 'iddah period was a woman waiting for the permissibility of marriage again, after the death of husband or divorce, either with the birth of a child, with quru' or the numbers a few months.
Various Kinds' Iddah
A wife who left her husband dead so 'iddahnya is for four months and ten days, both the husband has any interest or not, as the word of Allah, the Exalted:
والذين يتوفون منكم ويذرون أزواجا يتربصن بأنفسهن أربعة أشهر وعشرا
"The people who died in the midst of leaving their wives (the wives it should) suspend him (ber'iddah) four months and ten days." [Al-Baqarah: 234]
Unless the wife who had interfered in a state of pregnancy, then the 'iddahnya is to bear children.
Allah Ta'ala says:
وأولات الأحمال أجلهن أن يضعن حملهن
"And the women who are pregnant, the 'iddah them it was until they gave birth abortion." [Ath-Thalaaq: 4]
From al-Miswar Makhramah that bin al-As-Subai'ah lamiyah radi anhuma childbearing after the death of her husband a few nights. Then he went to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam asked permission to marry, then he let him, then he married. 
While a wife who divorced by her husband before interfered with, so he does not have the 'iddah, because the word of Allah, the Exalted:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا إذا نكحتم المؤمنات ثم طلقتموهن من قبل أن تمسوهن فما لكم عليهن من عدة تعتدونها
"O ye who believe, when ye marry believing women, then you divorce them before you take any interest then not at all obligatory upon their 'iddah you ask for you to perfect." [Al-Ahzaab: 49]
And wife who divorced after a mixed, if in a state of pregnancy, then the 'iddahnya is to give birth, as his word:
وأولات الأحمال أجلهن أن يضعن حملهن
"And the women who are pregnant, their iddah time it is until they give birth abortion." [Ath-Thalaaq: 4]
Of az-Zubayr ibn al-radi'Awwam anhu that he has a wife named Umm Kulthum bint 'Uqbah, he said to her husband in a state of pregnancy:
طيب نفسي بتطليقة! فطلقها تطليقة ثم خرج إلى الصلاة فرجع وقد وضعت, فقال: ما لها خدعتني خدعها الله. ثم أتى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال: سبق الكتاب أجله, اخطبها إلى نفسها.
"Be kind to me with mantalakku a divorce, then the grant Zubair. Then he went out to pray, when he returned home he found his wife had given birth. Then he said, 'Why is my wife tricked me, may Allah repay!' Zubair then went to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam and tells the incident. He said, 'the Book, had earlier this judge, then lamarlah back.' "
If she has menstruation, then 'iddahnya is three times menstruation, as the word of Allah, the Exalted:
والمطلقات يتربصن بأنفسهن ثلاثة قروء
"The women who divorced should refrain (waiting) three times quru '." [Al-Baqarah: 228]
And al-Quru 'is the period of menstruation, as mentioned in the hadeeth narrated by' Aisha:
أن أم حبيبة كانت تستحاض فسألت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فأمرها أن تدع الصلاة أيام أقرائها.
"That Umm Habibah in a state of menstruation. Then asked the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, then he told him to leave the prayer during the period of menstruation quru'nya. "
If the wife is still small and not menstruation or is old and broken haidhnya period, then the 'iddahnya is for three months. Allah Ta'ala says:
واللائي يئسن من المحيض من نسائكم إن ارتبتم فعدتهن ثلاثة أشهر واللائي لم يحضن
"And the women who despair of menstruation among women-girlfriends when you are in doubt (about the iddahnya) then they iddah is three months, and so (again) that women are not menstruating." [Ath-Thalaaq: 4]
What should a Wife Who Left Dead Husband?
He must do ihdad until the 'iddahnya completed.
And what is meant by ihdad is decorated with leaves and spices berwangi, took jewelry and do not wear brightly colored clothing and should not be painting her nails with henna and mencelak eye.
Of the Ummi 'radi Athiyah anhuma, he said:
كنا ننهى أن نحد على ميت فوق ثلاث إلا على زوج أربعة أشهر وعشرا ولا نكتحل ولا نتطيب ولا نلبس ثوبا مصبوغا إلا ثوب عصب وقد رخص لنا عند الطهر إذا اغتسلت إحدانا من محيضها في نبذة من كست أظفار وكنا ننهى عن اتباع الجنائز.
"Previously, we (the women) are prohibited from mourning the death of a person more than three days, except for the death of her husband, then the mourning period is between four months and ten days ma, we should not be mencelak eyes, do not use perfumes, should not be dressed in the color unless colorful fabric 'ashab, and the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam has provided relief to us when one of us has the sacred and has a shower, then we are allowed to use kistu azhfar (a kind of perfume she used to clean up former haidhnya ), and we were forbidden to follow the corpse. "
And from Umm Salamah radi anhuma, that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:
المتوفى عنها زوجها لا تلبس المعصفر من الثياب ولا الممشق ولا الحلي ولا تختضب ولا تكتحل.
"A wife is widowed by her husband, then she should not wear colorful clothes, do not wear jewelry, do not paint her nails with henna and not mencelak his eyes." 
What should a Wife Who Still In Time 'Iddah Raj'i From Divorce?
He should stay at home husband to the 'iddahnya completed and he should not leave the house as the husband also should not be out of the house. This corresponds to the word of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala:
يا أيها النبي إذا طلقتم النساء فطلقوهن لعدتهن وأحصوا العدة واتقوا الله ربكم لا تخرجوهن من بيوتهن ولا يخرجن إلا أن يأتين بفاحشة مبينة
"O Prophet, when you divorce your wives so be ye divorce them when they can be (against) 'iddahnya (reasonable) and compute the time' iddah it and fear Allah, your Lord. Do not remove them from their homes and let them not (allowed) to the outside unless they do evil deeds are bright. " [Ath-Thalaaq: 1]
The divorced wife of Ba-in
A wife who has been divorced ba-in so he did not get shelter and livelihood, as mentioned in a hadith narrated by Fatima bint Qais radi anhu that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam in the judge's wife who has been divorced three, he said, "He did not entitled to sukna (residence) or a living."  And he had to wait for the 'iddahnya family home and not allowed out except for the purpose.
From Jabir bin 'Abdillah radi anhu, he said:
طلقت خالتي, فأرادت أن تجد نخلها فزجرها رجل أن تخرج, فأتت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال: بلى, فجدي نخلك, فإنك عسى أن تصدقي أو تفعلي معروفا.
"My mother's sister has been divorced and he wanted to cut the tree kurmanya but there is someone who forbade him out of the house. Then he went to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, then he said,' Sure, cut kurmamu, because you might be able to charity or doing good (with the palm.) '"
[Copied from the book Al-Sunnah wal Wajiiz FII Fiqhis Kitaabil Aziiz, author Azhim Shaykh ibn Abdul al-Khalafi Badawai, edition of Indonesia Guide Complete Fiqh, Translation Team Tashfiyah LIPIA - Jakarta, Reader Publishers Ibn Kathir, Ramadan First published in 1428 - September 2007M]
. Agreed alaih: Shahiih al-Bukhari (IX/470, no. 5320), Muslim Shahiih (II/1122, no. 1485).
. Saheeh: [Shahiih Ibni Sunan Majah (no. 1646)], Ibni Sunan Majah (I / 653, no. 2026).
. Saheeh lighairihi: [Sunan Abi Dawud Shahiih (no. 252)], Sunan Abi Dawood (I/463, no. 278).
. Agreed alaih: Shahiih al-Bukhari (IX/491, no. 5341), Muslim Shahiih (II/1128, no. 938 (67)), and the semisalnya: Sunan Abi Dawood (VI / 411, no. 2285), Sunan an-Nasa-i (VI/203), Sunan Majah Ibni (I/674, no. 2087).
. Saheeh: [Shahiih al-Jaami'ish Shaghiir (no. 202)], Sunan Abi Dawood (VI/413, no. 2287), Sunan an-Nasa-i (VI/203) without mentioning al-Hulli lafazh.
. Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Shahiih Muslim (no. 888)], Shahiih Muslims (II/1118, no. 1480 (44)).
. Saheeh: [Irwaa-ul Ghaliil (no. 2134)], Saheeh Muslim (II/1121, no. 1483), Sunan an-Nasa-i (II/209), Sunan Abi Dawood (VI/398, no. 2280) with a history of such, Ibni Sunan Majah (I/656, no. 2034).