Athan AND IQAMAH
Ustadz Kholid Syamhudi
In the previous issue, we have explained about the call to prayer and iqamat. That includes understanding the difference between prayer and iqamat, and the nature and wording, so in this edition, we continue the discussion, which is the last part of the two posts.
LAW AND DISYARIATAN Athan
Iqamah prescribed prayer and is based on Shari'a texts, among them the story of Abdullah ibn Zaid and Umar bin Khattab, as stated in the hadeeth of Abdullah ibn Zaid that we have outlined in the front, and is the ijma 'to pray five times.
Imam An Nawawi said: "Athan and iqamah prescribed by the Shari'a texts and Ijma '. And it is not prescribed (call to prayer and this iqamah) in addition to the five daily prayers, there is no dispute (in this issue) ". 
Disyariatkannya occurred early in the first year Hijri. Mentioned in the hadith of Ibn Umar that reads:
كان المسلمون حين قدموا المدينة يجتمعون فيتحينون الصلاة ليس ينادى لها فتكلموا يوما في ذلك فقال بعضهم اتخذوا ناقوسا مثل ناقوس النصارى وقال بعضهم بل بوقا مثل قرن اليهود فقال عمر أولا تبعثون رجلا ينادي بالصلاة فقال رسول اله n يا بلال قم فناد بالصلاة
The Muslims, in the past when it comes to Medina together, and then estimating the time of prayer, without which menyerunya. (Up to) on one day, they talked about it. Most of them say "just use the bell as the bell Nassara". And some states' use it like a trumpet trumpet Jews ". Then Umar said: "Do not you lift a person to call to pray?" Then the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said, "O Bilal. Wake up and summon to prayer. "
Imam Ash Syaukani stated, this is the most authentic from the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam in the determination of the beginning of time prescribed prayer . It is also a dirajihkan Imam Ibn Hajar. 
As for the ruling, the scholars disagree in some opinions. Are closer to the truth of those opinions, is of opinion that require it, based on the hadith Malik bin Al Huwairits:
أتيت النبي صلى اله n عليه وسلم في نفر من قومي فأقمنا عنده عشرين ليلة وكان رحيما رفيقا فلما رأى شوقنا إلى أهالينا قال ارجعوا فكونوا فيهم وعلموهم وصلوا فإذا حضرت الصلاة فليؤذن لكم أحدكم وليؤمكم أكبركم رواه البخاري
I came to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam with some people from my nation, then we stayed at her side for 20 days. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam a generous and very gentle. When he saw our longing to the family, then he said: "Go you and stay with them, and teach them (Islam) and The prayer you. When it comes time for prayer, then let one of you beradzan. And the most elder people who lead the prayers you ". 
Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam also said:
ما من ثلاثة في قرية لا يؤذن ولا تقام فيهم الصلاة إلا استحوذ عليهم الشيطان رواه أحمد
No three people in a village that no call to prayer and not enforced in their prayers, but Satan will prey on them. 
Similarly, the opinion which Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah dirajihkan, Shaykh Ibn Al Uthaymeen  and Sheikh Al-Albani.
Shaykh Al-Albani said: "Truly, prayer is just an opinion stating the Sunnah is clearly a mistake. How come, when it includes the largest Islamic syi'ar, that if the Prophet did not hear it n the country of a people who will he fight, then he will fight against them. If you hear the call to prayer on them, he refrained, as has been narrated in Shahihain and otherwise. And the prayer command already exists in another authentic hadith. Though the law shall be determined by arguments that are lower than this. So true, call to prayer is fard kifaya, as dirajihkan Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah in Al Fatawa (1/67-68 and 4 / 20). Even for someone who prays alone ". 
Even Shaykh al-Islam law confirms this with his statement: "The truth, prayer is fard kifaya". 
Ibn Hazm commented on this issue with the statement: "We do not know who said it was not obligatory prayer and iqamah (this) has the proof. Had the Prophet does not justify the blood and treasure of a people that He tengarai with prayer in their absence, would have been enough for the obligatory" . 
LAWS AROUND Athan
There are several issues surrounding the call to prayer is quite important to know, including:
1. Beradzan Sunnah in a state of standing.
Ibn al-Mundhir said: "The scholars who I knew by heart, (they) agreed, that the sunna beradzan by standing" . This is in accordance with the orders the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam told in the hadith of Abu Bilal Qatadah:
إن اله قبض أرواحكم حين شاء وردها عليكم حين شاء يا بلال قم فأذن بالناس بالصلاة
Verily Allah revoke your spirits when (he) liked, and return it when (he) likes. O Bilal! Beradzanlah to get up and pray. [Reported by al Bukhari].
Also Sunnah facing the Qiblah . Shaykh al-Albani states: "It is saheeh proposition facing the Qiblah in prayer of the angels, as is seen Abdullah bin Zaid al-Ansari in his dream". 
2. Sunnah beradzan at high altitudes, so that sounded louder in conveying the call to prayer . As explained in the hadith a woman of Banu Najjar stating:
كان بيتي من أطول بيت حول المسجد وكان بلال يؤذن عليه الفجر
My house, dahuku including the highest house in the vicinity of the masjid (nabawi), and Bilal, the first beradzan dawn on the house. [Reported by Abu Dawud and al-Albaani in Irwa dihasankan 'Al Ghalil, hadith no. 229, pp.. 1 / 246].
3. Muezzin Sunnah turned her face to the right and left at Hayya 'ala al pray and Hayya' ala al falah (hai'alatain), based on the hadith of Abu Juhaifah which reads:
أنه رأى بلالا يؤذن فجعلت أتتبع فاه ههنا وههنا بالأذان
Indeed he saw Bilal beradzan, and then I saw his mouth there and say the prayer here. [Reported by al Bukhari].
And in Muslim history with lafadz:
فجعلت أتتبع فاه ها هنا وها هنا يقول يمينا وشمالا يقول حي على الصلاة حي على الفلاح
I noticed his mouth and start playing there and here, ie to the right and left, saying Hayya 'ala al pray, Hayya' ala al falah.
Imam An Nawawi explained in hai'alatain Sunnah turned away to the right and left. In the procedure of looking away, which mustahab there are three ways, namely:
First. This is the most correct and has been designated an expert Iraq and Khurasan experts (in the Shafi'i madhhab), that turned to the right by saying Hayya 'ala al pray, Hayya' ala al prayer, then turned to the left and saying Hayya 'ala al falah , Hayya 'ala al falah.
Second. Turning to the right and saying Hayya 'ala al pray, then return to face the qiblah, then turn right again and saying Hayya' ala ash prayers. Then turning to the left and saying Hayya 'ala al-Falah, then returned to face the qiblah, then turn left again and saying Hayya' ala al falah.
Third. Al Qafal opinion, that is saying Hayya 'ala al pray once turned right, and once turned to the left; then saying Hayya' ala al falah once turned to the right and once turned to the left. 
4. Disunahkan put both fingers in ears, as the hadeeth of Abu Juhaifah with lafadz:
رأيت بلالا يؤذن ويتبع فاه ها هنا وها هنا وإصبعاه في أذنيه ورسول اله صلى اله عليه وسلم في قبة له حمراء أراه
I saw Bilal beradzan and twisted his mouth down there and here as well as two fingers in his ears. [Reported by Ahmad and At-Tirmidhi, and At-Tirmidhi said that this hadith is hasan saheeh. Shaykh Al-Albani menshahihkannya in Irwa 'Al Ghalil, no. 230, pp.. 1 / 248].
After submitting this hadith, Imam At-Tirmidhi said: "This is what the scholars practiced. They include both a muezzin mensunnahkan his fingers into his ears the Adhan. And some scholars claim, too, in the second iqamat put his fingers into his ears. Similarly, this opinion of Al 'Auza'i ". 
5. Raising his voice in prayer Sunnah , based on the words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam:
فإنه لا يسمع مدى صوت المؤذن جن ولا إنس ولا شيء إلا شهد له يوم القيامة
It is not heard a muezzin for jinn and humans as well (all) things, except to testify for him on Judgement Day. [Reported by al Bukhari].
LAW AND HEARD AND ANSWERED Athan IQAMAT
The scholars are divided into two different opinions relating to the law to hear and answer prayer.
1. Is obligatory.
Thus this opinion Azh Zhahiriyah schools and Ibn Wahb. Proposition that was delivered is the hadeeth of Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri, which reads:
أن رسول اله صلى اله l y عليه وسلم قال إذا سمعتم النداء فقولوا مثل ما يقول المؤذن
Indeed the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said, "If you hear the call to prayer, then the answer as it is delivered muezzin'. (Agreed upon) .
In this hadith there is a command to answer prayer, and command, was originally demonstrated compulsory.
2. Is Sunnah.
This is the opinion of the majority of scholars . They said that the hadeeth of Abu Sa'eed above shall be turned away from the sunna with hadith 'A'isha, which reads:
أن رسول اله a صلى اله n عليه وسلم كان إذا سمع المؤذن يتشهد قال وأنا وأنا
Indeed the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, when I hear the muezzin reading creed, then he said "and me and me". [Abu Dawud].
In this hadith, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam did not answer the call to prayer perfectly. They also postulate the hadith Anas bin Malik:
كان رسول اله صلى اله a عليه وسلم يغير إذا طلع الفجر وكان يستمع الأذان فإن سمع أذانا أمسك وإلا أغار فسمع رجلا يقول الهع أكبر اله أكبر فقال رسول اله صلى الهق عليه وسلم على الفطرة ثم قال أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الهل فقال رسول اله صلى اله عليه وسلم خرجت من النار
Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam attack (a people) when it was morning. And he noticed prayer. When he heard, then he held. And if not (hear), then he attacked. Then the Prophet heard someone say: (اله a أكبر اله أكبر), then he said: 'On the nature are "(على الفطرة), then he (someone's) says:
(أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الها أشهد) and Shallahu Rasulullah 'alaihi wa sallam replied: "You have been out of hell". [Reported by Muslim].
In explaining this hadith, Ibn Hajar states, there is some history associated with this hadith that menunjukkakan, that this happens when the time to pray . This is also supported by the Mualimin practice at the time of Umar, as conveyed Tsa'labah ibn Abi Malik:
كانوا يتحدثون يوم الجمعة و عمر جالس على المنبر فإذا سكت المؤذن قام عمر فلم يتكلم أحد
They first talked on Friday and Umar sat on the pulpit. If the muezzin call to prayer is finished, then Umar woke up and no one spoke. [HR ash-Shafi'i in Al Um, and classed as saheeh An Nawawi, as described in Tamamul Minnah Albani, pp.. 339].
History is also corroborated by the history of Ibn Abi Syaibah issued with saheeh sanad, as follows:
أدركت عمر و عثمان فكان الإمام إذا خرج يوم الجمعة تركنا الصلاة فإذا تكلمنا تركنا الكلام
I met 'Umar and Uthman, if a priest came out (towards the mosque), then we left the prayer, and when speaking (berkhutbah), then we left the conversation. [Ibn Abi Syaibah and classed as saheeh al-Albaani in Tamamul Minnah, pp.. 340].
This opinion is dirajihkan Sheikh Al Albani  and the famous Sheikh Salman.
Shaykh Al-Albani said: In this atsar, there are arguments which show no necessity to answer (the call) muezzin, because at the time of Umar practice conversation occurred when the call to prayer, and Umar silent. I asked a lot about the proposition that turned the command that indicates the obligation to answer prayer. So I replied with this atsar. Iqamat Likewise, in this case the same law with the call to prayer, as stated Lajnah Daa'imah Buhuts Lil Al Ilmiyah Wal Ifta, in their statement that reads "sunnah an answer like that hearing iqamat Muqim greeting (people who beriqamah); because iqamat a second call to prayer , so that answered prayer is answered as . And Allaah knows best.
Athan IS ANSWERED Prayer
Based on the above law, then comes another problem, namely how the law a person who was praying to hear Adhan, whether to answer or not? In this case there are three opinions of scholars:
1. Mandatory prayer answered though in prayer, except greeting Hayya 'ala al pray and Hayya' ala al falah (hai'alatain). Thus the opinion of schools Azh Zhahiriyah and Ibn Hazm.
Ibn Hazm said: "Whoever heard the muezzin, then the answer as it is pronounced exactly the same muezzin call to prayer from beginning to end. Whether he is outside or inside the prayer prayer. Either mandatory or sunnah prayers. Unless Hayya 'ala al pray and Hayya' ala al falah (hai'alatain), it is not pronounced in the prayer, and prayer was pronounced outside ".
The proof is the hadeeth of Ibn 'Amr and Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri, which reads:
أن رسول اله u i صلى اله عليه وسلم قال إذا سمعتم النداء فقولوا مثل ما يقول المؤذن
Indeed the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said, "If you hear the call to prayer, then the answer as it is delivered muezzin. [Agreed upon].
The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa salalm not mengkhusukan it in prayer or outside. While hai'latain is human speech are invited to pray. Adhan is entirely dhikr, dhikr and prayer is the place ". 
2. No answer to prayer when in a state of prayer.
Similarly, this opinion of the majority of scholars (jumhur), with a postulated hadith Abdullah bin Mas'ud, which reads:
كنا نسلم على النبي صلى اله) عليه وسلم وهو في الصلاة فيرد علينا فلما رجعنا من عند النجاشي سلمنا عليه فلم يرد علينا وقال إن في الصلاة شغلا
We, first gave greetings to the Prophet n the objec He prayed and he responded. When we returned from the country Najasi, we greeted him and (he) did not answer our greetings and said: "Verily in prayer is one busy". [Agreed upon].
This hadith, according jumhur show makruhnya answering the obligatory greeting, then what about the legal answer to prayer alone sunnah? Moreover in the prayer, someone was busy bermunajah to God, so answer the call to prayer can damage specificity.
3. Answering the call to prayer in the prayer is not answered in the sunnah and fard prayers.
That is one opinion in madhhab Malikiyah.
As for the author, in this case tends to reinforce jumhur opinion, based on the Sunnah prayer replied that has been dikemukan above. And Allaah knows best.
Prescribed prayers and PRAYER AFTER READING Athan
As has been taught by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam in the hadeeth of Abdullah ibn' Amr that reads:
عن عبد اله بن عمرو بن العاص أنه سمع النبي صلى اله d عليه وسلم يقول إذا سمعتم المؤذن فقولوا مثل ما يقول ثم صلوا علي فإنه من صلى علي صلاة صلى الهي عليه بها عشرا ثم سلوا الهو لي الوسيلة فإنها منزلة في الجنة لا تنبغي إلا لعبد من عباد الهر وأرجو أن أكون أنا هو فمن سأل لي الوسيلة حلت له الشفاعة
'Abdullah bin' Amr bin Al 'Ash, he heard the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam said: "If you hear the muezzin, then the answer like what he says, then bershalawatlah for me, because anyone who bershalawat for me, then God will bershalawat him ten times . Then mintakanlah to God for me al Wasilah, because he is the one position in heaven is not fitting, except for a servant of God, and I hope, (that) I am he. Whoever intercedes for me al Wasilah, it will get syafaatku. [Reported by Muslim].
Wasilah petition is exemplified in the hadith of Jabir, which reads:
أن رسول اله s صلى اله c عليه وسلم قال من قال حين يسمع النداء اللهم رب هذه الدعوة التامة والصلاة القائمة آت محمدا الوسيلة والفضيلة وابعثه مقاما محمودا الذي وعدته حلت له شفاعتي يوم القيامة
Indeed the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said: "Whoever is when (completed) heard the call to prayer says:
اللهم رب هذه الدعوة التامة والصلاة القائمة آت محمدا الوسيلة والفضيلة وابعثه مقاما محمودا الذي وعدته
So get syafaatku on the Day of Judgement. [Reported by al Bukhari].
Such are some of the laws surrounding the call to prayer and iqamat, the author briefly convey. Hopefully useful.
1. Ghauts Al Makdud Bi Takhrij Muntaqa Ibn Al Jarud, Abu Ishaq al Huwaini, Moulds Second, Year 1414H, Dar Al Kitab Arabi.
2. Syarhu Al Mumti '' Ala Al Zaad Mustaqni ', Muhammad bin Saalih Al' Uthaymeen, Verification Dr. Sulayman ibn Aba Abdillah Khoil and Dr. Khalid bin Ali Musyaiqih, First Edition, Year 1415H, Muassasah Aasaam, KSA.
3. Majmoo 'Syarhu Al Muhadzdzab, Imam An Nawawi, Verification Muhammad Najib Al Muthi'i, Prints year 1415H, Dar Ihya At Turats Al Arabi, Beirut.
4. Fathul Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar, Maktabah As Salafiyah.
5. Nail Al Authar ahadith Min Al Sayyid Al Akhyar Syarhu Muntaqa Al Akhbar, Mohammed bin Ali Al Syaukani, Verification Muhammad Salim Hashim, First Edition, Year 1415H, Al Dar Al Ilmiyah Pole, Beirut.
[Copied from magazines Sunnah 035Tahun IX/1426H/2005 Edition. Published Foundation Lajnah Istiqomah Surakarta, Jl. Solo - Solo Purwodadi Km.8 Selokaton Gondanrejo 57 183 Tel. 0271-761016]
. Majmoo 'Syarhu Al Muhadzdzab, Imam An Nawawi, Verification Muhammad Najib Al Muthi'i, Prints year 1415H, Dar Ihya `At Turats Al' Arabi, Beirut, 3 / 83.
. Reported by al-Bukhari in his Sahih, book of Al Athan, Adhan al Bad'u Chapter, no. 604; Muslim, book Al Masajid, Chapter Nu Man Ahaqqu Imamat, no. 674.
. Nail Al Authar ahadith Min Al Sayyid Al Akhyar Syarhu Muntaqa Al Akhbar, Mohammed bin Ali Al Syaukani, Verification Muhammad Salim Hashim, First Edition, Year 1415H, Al Dar Al Ilmiyah Pole, Beirut, p.. 2 / 32.
. See Fathul Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, op.cit., Pp.. 2 / 78.
. Reported by al-Bukhari in his Sahih, Kitab al-Adhan
. Ahmad, no. 20 719.
. Syarhu Al Mumti ', op.cit., Pp.. 2 / 37.
. Tamamul Minnah Fi Ta'liq 'Ala Fiqhi As Sunnah, Shaykh Muhammad al-Albani Nashiruddin, Third Printing, Year 1409 H, Dar Rayah, Riyadh, KSA, p.. 144.
. Majmoo 'al-Fatawa, Ibn Taymiyyah, Verification Abdur-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al-Qasim, without years of printing and publishing, pp.. 22/64.
. Al muhalla, Ibn Hazm, Verification Ahmad Shakir, Maktabah Dar At Turats, Cairo, pp.. 3 / 125.
. Ibn Qudama quoted in Al Mughni, op.cit., 2 / 82.
. See Al Majmoo ', op.cit., 3 / 114.
. Irwa 'Al Ghalil, op.cit., 1 / 250 and see the hadith by the hadith no. 246 in the Irwa ', 1/264-265.
. Al Mughni, op.cit., 2 / 83.
. Al Majmoo ', op.cit., Pp.. 3 / 115.
. Jami 'At-Tirmidhi (Sunan At-Tirmidhi), Verification Ahmad Muhammad Shakir, Al Dar Al Ilmiyah Pole, Beirut, 1 / 377.
. Al Mughni, op.cit., 2 / 72.
. See Al muhalla, op.cit., 3 / 148.
. See Al Majmoo ', op.cit., 3 / 127.
. Fathul Bari, op.cit., 2 / 93.
. Tamamul Minnah, op.cit., Pp.. 340.
. Fataawa Al Lajnah Ad Daa'imah Buhuts Lil Al Ilmiyah Wal Ifta ', compiled by Shaykh Ahmad Abdurrazaq Ad Duwais, First Edition, Year 1416H, p.. 6 / 89 and 90.
. See Al muhalla, op.cit., Pp.. 3 / 147