Thursday, 1 December 2011

Athan And Iqamah (1)

Athan AND IQAMAH

By
Ustadz Kholid Syamhudi

In Islam, prayer is worship badaniyah important and has been designated timeframe. Allah says, it means: When you have completed the prayer (mu), remember Allah standing, sitting and reclining. Then when you have to feel safe, then be steadfast in prayer (as usual). (An Nisa ': 103). Indeed obligations specified time over those who believe ... [An Nisa ': 104].

To find time for prayer, God has mensyariatkan incoming call to prayer as a sign of prayer times, the following procedures for prayer and Islamic law with regard to the call to prayer. The semuai this, it is important to be known by the Muslims.

DEFINITIONS OF ATHANK AND IQAMAH
The word comes from the Arabic Adhan meaningful notice, as the word of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala:

فإن لم تفعلوا فأذنوا بحرب من الله ورسوله وإن تبتم فلكم رءوس أموالكم لا تظلمون ولا تظلمون

So if you do not do (of war) then know that Allah and His Messenger will fight you. And if you repent (from taking usury), then you staple your treasure; you do not persecute and not (also) persecuted. [Al-Baqarah: 279].

وأذان من الله ورسوله إلى الناس يوم الحج الأكبر أن الله برىء من المشركين ورسوله فإن تبتم فهو خير لكم وإن توليتم فاعلموا أنكم غير معجزي الله وبشر الذين كفروا بعذاب أليم {3}

And (this is) a proclamation from Allah and His Messenger to mankind on the day of the great pilgrimage that Allah and His Messenger innocent of the idolaters. Then if you (the polytheists) repent, repent it is better for you: and if ye turn away, know ye that ye can not frustrate Allah. And preached to unbelievers (that they will receive) a painful punishment. [At-Tawbah: 3].

As according to Shari'a, call to prayer is to worship God with prayer time with a notice of entry of certain dhikr. This is what dirajihkan Ibn 'Uthaymeen, as his statement: "This is more precise than just (just) the understanding that prayer is a notice of entry of prayer times, prayer because prayer is involved. Therefore, if diysariatkan ibrad in Dhuhr prayer (prayer Dhuhr slow until slightly cool), then the call to prayer is prescribed mengakhirkan ". [1]

The iqamah, according to rules derived from the Arabic word whose meaning aqama, making it a straight or straightened. Meanwhile, according to the term Shari'a, iqamah is, worship of God to uphold the prayer with a specific dhikr. [2]

Athan DIFFERENCES AND IQAMAH
Understanding of prayer and iqamah above, it is known the difference between prayer and iqamah is:

1. Athan to notify the entry time to prepare for prayers fulfilled, and iqamah to enter and start the prayer.
2. Lafadz (dhikr) being floated, and each (between prayer and iqamah) are also different, as will be described in the following discussion.

Athan AND NATURE AND LAFADZ IQAMAH
Lafadz prayer that exist and are used at the time of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam and famous in the schools of the scholars there are three kinds:

1. Lafadz prayer with 15 sentences, namely: four Takbir, 2 creed Lailaha illa Allah, Prophet creed 2, 2 Hayya 'ala as prayer, 2 Hayya' alal falah, 2 Takbir and a sentence of monotheism.

"الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر. أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله. أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله. حي على الصلاة حي على الصلاة. حي على الفلاح حي على الفلاح. الله أكبر الله أكبر. لا إله إلا الله "

This is used by schools Ahmad bin Hanbal and Abu Hanifah. Essentially is the hadeeth of Ibn Zaid which reads:

لما أمر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بالناقوس يعمل ليضرب به للناس لجمع الصلاة طاف بي وأنا نائم رجل يحمل ناقوسا في يده فقلت يا عبد الله أتبيع الناقوس قال وما تصنع به فقلت ندعو به إلى الصلاة قال أفلا أدلك على ما هو خير من ذلك فقلت له بلى قال فقال تقول الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله حي على الصلاة حي على الصلاة حي على الفلاح حي على الفلاح الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله
قال ثم استأخر عني غير بعيد ثم قال وتقول إذا أقمت الصلاة الله أكبر الله أكبر أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله حي على الصلاة حي على الفلاح قد قامت الصلاة قد قامت الصلاة الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله
فلما أصبحت أتيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأخبرته بما رأيت فقال إنها لرؤيا حق إن شاء الله فقم مع بلال فألق عليه ما رأيت فليؤذن به فإنه أندى صوتا منك فقمت مع بلال فجعلت ألقيه عليه ويؤذن به قال فسمع ذلك عمر بن الخطاب وهو في بيته فخرج يجر رداءه ويقول والذي بعثك بالحق يا رسول الله لقد رأيت مثل ما رأى فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فلله الحمد

When the Prophet ordered the use of bells to call people gathered for prayer, then in my sleep, I dreamed there was someone who surround me with carrying a bell in his hand, then I said to him: "O servant of God. Do you sell that bell? "So he replied:" Want you do with it? "So I menjawb:" Calling people prayed with him ". Then the person is declared: "Will you, I show a better than that?" I replied: "Yes, like". So he says: "Say:

"الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله حي على الصلاة حي على الصلاة حي على الفلاح حي على الفلاح الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله "

He said: "Then the person appears not far from me," then states: And if you do iqamah, (then) say:

"الله أكبر الله أكبر أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله حي على الصلاة حي على الفلاح قد قامت الصلاة قد قامت الصلاة الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله"

When the dawn, I met the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam and the dream is telling. Then he sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said: "Really, it is a dream come true, God willing. Then go to Bilal and teach what you see, then let Bilal's call to prayer with him, because he was louder voice than you. "Then I met Bilal and taught him, and she brought with her prayer. Then Umar bin Khattab heard about it in his house, then he came out dragging her shawl and declares: "By the One who sent you to the right, O Messenger of Allah, indeed I will see what he saw in a dream". Then the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said: "Thank God". [3]

2. Lafadz azan number of 17 sentences, which is 2 Takbir, 2 syahadatain repeated twice = 8 lines, 2 Hayya 'ala as prayer, 2 Hayya alal falah, 2 Takbir and a sentence of monotheism. This is the prayer according to Imam Malik, and essentially is the hadeeth of Abu Mahdzurah:

عن أبي محذورة أن نبي الله علمه هذا الأذان الله أكبر الله أكبر أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله ثم يعود فيقول أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله حي على الصلاة مرتين حي على الفلاح مرتين زاد إسحق الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله

From Abu Mahdzurah, that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam taught him Adhan with:

"الله أكبر الله أكبر. أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله
أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله "

Then repeat, then read:

"أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله. أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله"
"حي على الصلاة" (twice)

And (reading) حي على الفلاح twice.

Ishaq added reading: [4]

الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله

3. 19 sentence wording, which is 4 Takbir, 2 syahadatain with tarji '(repeated twice = 8 sentences), 2 Hayya' ala as prayer, 2 Hayya alal falah, 2 Takbir and a sentence of monotheism. This is used as a guideline in the Shafi'i madhhab. The proof is the hadeeth of Abu Mahdzurah:

أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم علمه الأذان تسع عشرة كلمة والإقامة سبع عشرة كلمة

The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam taught him Adhan iqamah 19 sentences and 17 sentences. [5]

This is described in another report from Abu Mahdzurah, he said:

قلت يا رسول الله علمني سنة الأذان فمسح مقدم رأسي وقال تقول الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر ترفع بها صوتك ثم تقول أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله تخفض بها صوتك ثم ترفع صوتك بالشهادة أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله حي على الصلاة حي على الصلاة حي على الفلاح حي على الفلاح فإن كان صلاة الصبح قلت الصلاة خير من النوم الصلاة خير من النوم الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله

I said: "O Messenger of Allah. Teach me sunnah prayer. "Then he holds the front of my head and said:" Speak softly

"الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر. أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله
أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله "

Then keraskanlah voice in reading creed:

"أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله.
أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله. حي على الصلاة حي على الصلاة. حي على الفلاح حي على الفلاح "

If the dawn prayer, say:

"الصلاة خير من النوم الصلاة خير من النوم"

Then: [6]

"الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله"

Ibn Abd al-Bar said: "Ahmad, Ishaq, Dawud and Ibn Jarir opinion, this includes err is permissible, because the first four Takbir or made two times, or with tarji 'in the creed or not, iqamah made two-two or one on one everything except قد قامت الصلاة. everything is allowed. [7]

In this issue, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih Al Uthaymeen give his statement as the Legal Affairs Committee: Everything in the hadith of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam from lafadz call to prayer, then it is allowed, even should, sometimes using this and sometimes that one, if not cause unrest and slander. There is a rule which states, acts of worship that is taught in a different hand, should be carried out on all the sides. This has several faidah (benefit):
a). Keeping the Sunnah in a variety of sides.
b). Easing the mukallaf.
c). The presence of the liver (make khusyu `) and not get bored.
d). Preserve and maintain the Shari'a. [8]

Then there is another narration which explains that the call to prayer carried out two by two, and iqamah one on one, as in the hadith of Ibn Umar disebtukan:

كان الأذان على عهد النبي مثنى مثنى و الإقامة واحدة غير أنه إذا قال قد قامت الصلاة ثنى بها

Adhan at the time of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam two-two, and iqamah one-one, except قد قامت الصلاة twice. [9]

While there are three well lafadz iqamah, namely:
a). Iqamah 11 sentences, namely:

الله أكبر الله أكبر أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله حي على الصلاة حي على الفلاح قد قامت الصلاة قد قامت الصلاة الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله

This is the opinion iqamah Shafi'i, Ahmad and most of the clergy, on the basis of the hadith Abdullah bin Zaid above.

b). Iqamah as above with reduced قد قامت الصلاة into one so that the amount of 10 sentences. Thus according to this iqamah Malikiyah madhhab. [10]

c). Iqamah totaling 17 sentences, namely: [11]

الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله حي على الصلاة حي على الصلاة حي على الفلاح حي على الفلاح قد قامت الصلاة قد قامت الصلاة الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله

This is according to the madhhab of Abu Hanifah iqamah, on the basis of the hadeeth of Abu Mahdzurah which states:

أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم علمه الأذان تسع عشرة كلمة والإقامة سبع عشرة كلمة قال أبو عيسى هذا حديث حسن صحيح

Indeed the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam taught him Adhan iqamah 19 sentences and 17 sentences.

Abu Isa al-Tirmidhi said: "This hadeeth hasan saheeh". [12]

4). Iqamah with 9 sentences, with only one exception قد قامت الصلاة twice, basically is the hadeeth of Ibn 'Umar above.

Imam Bukhari also wrote this issue in chapter Al Iqamatu Wahidah Qaulahu قد قامت الصلاة Illa, who supported Al Hafiz Ibn Hajar agreed in pensyariatannya.

All lafadz azan above may be used, and better when used in full, unless the fear of fitnah in the community, as has been presented above Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen.

CONTENT LAFADZ Athan
Lafazd prayer and iqamah includes content Aqeedah of a Muslim, so the Imam Al-Qadhi Iyadh argues: "Know that prayer is a sentence that contains the aqeedah of faith that includes the types. The first, set the Essence and the Essence of God ought to be had from the perfection and purification of the opposite of perfection. And it contained the words "Allahu Akbar". Lafadz this, though very brief, but it explains what we have mentioned above. Then (the second), affirmed the unity of God and the rejection of any ally that is impossible for Him. This is the basis and pillar of faith, and monotheist, there is precedence over all other religious duties. Then confirms the determination of the truth of prophecy and persakisan treatise (apostolic) for our Prophet, Muhammad sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam. And this is a great rule after keesaaan creed about God. Then invite the religious obligations. Invited to pray and make the determination of prophecy, because the obligation is known through the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, rather than through reason. Then invite hello to victory, that is eternal in the eternal enjoyment. Here there is a cue for the hereafter matters in terms of resurrection and revenge which is the final issue of Islamic Aqeedah. Then it repeated the prayer iqamat to notify the start. It contains an affirmation of faith and repetition explanation when starting a religious faith with heart and orally, and that those who pray continually in righteous deeds and clarity of the science of faith, prayer and feel the majesty and grandeur of Essence that is worshiped as well as a great reward ". [13]

Imam Al-Qurtubi also stated: "Adhan, although the wording is very concise, but contains a lot of problems aqeedah; because prayer begins with the determination that contain takbeer existence and perfection of God. This was followed by the establishment of monotheism and polytheism deny. Then the determination of the minutes of Muhammad sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, and call to obey the Special Representative particularly after the shahada (testimony) of the treatise (apostolic), because praying is not known except from the way the apostle. Then an invitation to the victory, which is eternity and contains cues about the Day of Judgement, and then repeated for emphasis. So that from didapatkanlah notification of incoming call to prayer prayer times, and appeared syiar congregational invitation of Islam ".

Maraji `:
1. Ghauts Al Makdud Bi Takhrij Muntaqa Ibn Al Jarud, Abu Ishaq al Huwaini, second Matter, Year 1414 H, Dar Al Kitab Arabi.
2. Syarhu Al Mumti '' Ala Al Zaad Mustaqni ', Muhammad ibn Saalih Al Uthaymeen, Verification Dr. Abdillah bin Sulaiman and Dr. Aba Khail. Khalid bin Ali Al Musyaiqih, First printing, Year 1415H, Muassasah Aasaam, KSA.
3. Majmoo 'Syarhu Al Muhadzdzab, Imam al-Nawawi, Verification Muhammad Najib Al Muthi'i, Prints Year 1415H, Dar Ihya' At Turats Al Arabi, Beirut.
4. Fathul Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Ibn Hajar Al Hafidz, Maktabah As Salafiyah.
5. Nail Al Authar ahadith Min Al Sayyid Al Akhyar Syarhu Muntaqa Al Akhbar, Mohammed bin Ali Al Syaukani, Verification Muhammad Salim Hashim, First printing, Year 1415H, Al Dar Al Ilmiyah Pole, Beirut.
6. Tamam Al Minnah Fi Ta'liq 'Ala Fiqhi As Sunnah, Shaykh Muhammad al-Albani Nashiruddin, three Moulds, Year 1409 H, Dar Rayah, Riyadh, KSA.
7. Irwa 'Al Ghalil Fi Sabil Al Manaru Takhrij ahadith, Muhammad al-Albani Nashiruddin, second Matter, Year 1405 H, Al-Maktab al-Islami, Beirut.
8. Fiqhu Sunnah, Sayyid Sabiq, Prints Year 1416 H, Al-Fath Al-Arabi I'lam Li, Cairo and Syarikat Manar Ad Daulah, USA.
9. Majmoo 'al-Fatawa, Ibn Taymiyyah, Verification Abdur-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al-Qasim, without years of printing and publishing.
10. Al I'lam Bi FAWAID Umdat Al Ahkam, Ibn Al Mulaqqin, Verification Ahmad Abdul Aziz Al Musyaiqih, First printing, 1417H, Dar Al 'Ashimah, KSA.

[Copied from magazines Sunnah 035Tahun IX/1426H/2005 Edition. Published Foundation Lajnah Istiqomah Surakarta, Jl. Solo - Solo Purwodadi Km.8 Selokaton Gondanrejo 57 183 Tel. 0271-761016]
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Footnote
[1]. Syarhu Al Mumti '' Ala Al Zaad Mustaqni ', Muhammad ibn Saalih Al Uthaymeen, tahqiq Dr. Abdillah bin Sulaiman and Dr. Aba Khail. Khalid bin Ali Musyaiqih, First Edition, Year 1415H, Muassasah Acid, KSA, p.. 2 / 35.
[2]. Ibid, p.. 2 / 36.
[3]. This is narrated by Abu Dawud, no. 499; Ibn Majah, no. 706; Ad Darimi (1/214-215), At-Tirmidhi, no. 189; Ahmad in his Musnad (4 / 43) and Ibn Khuzaimah (1 / 189, 191-192), also Ibn al Jarud in his Muntaqa. See takhrij this hadeeth in Al Makdud Bi Ghauts Takhrij Muntaqa Ibn Al Jarud, Abu Ishaq al Huwaini, second Matter, Year 1414H, Dar Al Kitab Arabi, p.. 1 / 156. Abu Ishaq stated, sanadnya hasan. Likewise, Sheikh Al-Albaani in Irwa 'Al Ghalil, pp.. 1/264-265, no. 247.
[4]. Reported by Muslim, in his Saheeh, Book of Prayers Ash, Chapter Shifat Al Adhan, no. 379.
[5]. HR At-Tirmidhi in his Sunan, Book of Prayers Ash, Chapter Ja'a Fit Tarji Ma ', no. 192 with a saheeh sanad.
[6]. Reported by Ahmad; Abu Dawud in his Sunan, Book of Prayers Ash, Chapter Kaifa Al Adhan, no. 503.
[7]. Fathul Bari, p.. 2 / 84.
[8]. Syarhu Al Mumti ', op.cit. p.. 2/51-52.
[9]. HR Ibn Al Jarud in Muntaqa, no. P. 164. 1 / 160, Abu Ishaq al Huwaini (pentahqiq book Al Muntaqa) states: "Sanadnya hasan". See Al Makdud Ghauts, op.cit. p.. 1 / 160.
[10]. See Fiqhu Sunnah, Sayyid Sabiq, Prints 1416 H, Li I'lam Publisher Al Fath Al-Arabi, Cairo and Syarikat Manar Ad Daula, USA pp.. 1 / 126.
[11]. HR Ibn Jarud in Muntaqa, no. 162, pp.. 1 / 158 and said to Abu Ishaq al Huwaini: "Sanadnya saheeh". See Al Makdud Ghauts, op.cit. p.. 1/58-159.
[12]. HR At-Tirmidhi in his Sunan, Book of Prayers Ash, Chapter Ja'a Fit Tarji Ma ', no. 192.
[13]. See Majmoo 'Syarhu Al Muhadzdzab, Imam al-Nawawi, Verification Muhammad Najib Al Muthi'i, Prints Year 1415H, Daar Ihyaa' At Turats Al 'Arabi, Beirut, p.. 3 / 81.
[14]. See Fathul Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Ibn Hajar Al Hafidz, Maktabah As Salafiyah, pp.. 2 / 77

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